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Bidding and Optimization

Home > English > Bidding and Optimization > Settings & Troubleshooting > Device Multiplier (AKA Device-X)

Device Multiplier (AKA Device-X)


The Device Multiplier Engine is a component of the Marin Bidding on Spark engine that takes as input device level performance and outputs group-level device multipliers.

The Device Multiplier Engine is part of Marin Beta’s bidding tools, which leverage input data from the Hadoop pipeline and traffic in the current UI platform. It is currently in beta.

Note: In order to understand this article, we also recommend you review the article Margin Based Bidding on Spark (Closed Beta) AKA Bidding 1.5.


The benefits of the Device Multiplier include:

  • Mobile goals: Users are now able to specify a separate mobile CPL or Margin goal.

  • Multiplier recommendations: For Google, the Device Multiplier Engine will recommend desktop, tablet and mobile group-level multipliers.

  • Improved stability: The Device Multiplier Engine is more accurate and prevents wild swings via Z-tests and click thresholds.

  • Honored Bid Rules: Recommended multipliers now honor folder bid rules such as bid cap, bid floor and bid dampening.

  • Multiplier Overrides: Users can override groups from using Marin recommended group multipliers.
  • Improved workflow:
    • Confidence level levers are no longer visible in the user interface, they are set by default to 95%


Algorithm Flow

  1. The Device Multiplier Engine runs within a folder. To access the Mobile Bid Adjustment section within a folder, go to the left-hand navigation bar and click on Mobile Bid Adjustment. If Device Multiplier beta flag is enabled, all folders with Group Mobile Bid Adjustment set to Preview mode will display the device multiplier recommendations. All folders with Mobile Bid Adjustment set to Traffic will have their recommendations pushed to the publisher. 

    Important: Currently, enabling Device - X will change the device ROI goals to a default and they will have to be manually updated after enabling. For example, if we have a Folder ROI target of 95% for all devices. After enabling Device-X the mobile ROI target is updated to 11%. This will have to be manually updated back to 95% to achieve the overall folder goal.

  2. The engine uses 91 days (13 weeks) of historical group-level conversion rate for desktop, tablet and mobile as input.

  3. A combination of click thresholds and Z-tests are used to measure statistical significance before recommending multipliers.

  4. In the case where groups do not have enough data, the engine expands to use parent campaign device performance data. This will only take place if groups perform similarly within that campaign. Otherwise, the engine does not recommend or change group multipliers.

  5. Google bids are now the base bids and the device multipliers (allowable values -100% to 900%) are calculated to provide device-specific bids. For Yahoo Japan, the bid represents the desktop and tablet bid, while the mobile multiplier (allowable values -100% to 300%) is calculated relative to desktop and tablet performance.

    Note: For non-Google publishers, we currently apply a -90% to +300% device boost constraint for Device-X. You can track this under the JIRA BID-1374.

  6. For folders with separate mobile targets, the ratio of mobile to desktop targets produce a boost % that is applied to the mobile multiplier.

  7. The Margin-based Bidding Rules are applied to both the desktop bid and the mobile multipliers. The following rules are honored: bid cap, bid floor and bid dampening.

Compatibility With Publisher Bidding Features 

We discourage the use of eCPC with Margin Based Bidding on Spark (MBBS 1.5/2.0) as it will result in double-boosting the Device Multiplier, and as well the Audience and Geo Multipliers which will be launched in the coming months. 

As per the AdWords Article About Enhanced CPC, 'ECPC automatically takes into account different conversion rates for all types of traffic, but sets adjustments separately for mobile devices. This means you don’t need to set any bid adjustments (aside from mobile) for ECPC to maximize conversions.' Because of the above, if the eCPC is used and additional Marin's Automated Device Bid Adjustment is applied, this will lead to double boosting.


Frequently Asked Questions

Will DeviceX only impact folders where Device Bidding has been enabled?

Yes, DeviceX will only impact folders where "Device Bidding" has been enabled. If DeviceX has not been enabled, Marin Bidding won't push any device modifiers to the publisher.

If device bidding is enabled, will DeviceX change campaigns with a -100% adjustment?

No, DeviceX will not make adjustments if there is a -100% bid adjustment in place.


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